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Article ID: 132686 - Last Review: August 15, 2005 - Revision: 1.3

This article was previously published under Q132686

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In Microsoft Excel, when you use a minus sign (-) as a negation operator (for example -1) in a formula, the negation operator has higher precedence than a binary operator. This order of precedence may mean that a formula returns a positive value when you expect it to return a negative value. For example, the formula
is evaluated as:
The minus sign is evaluated as a negation operator. The formula returns a positive value, 4.


Microsoft Excel uses an order of calculation to evaluate operators in formulas. The order of evaluation of operators dictates that a minus sign (-) used as a negation operator (such as -1) is evaluated before all other operators. Because of this order, the formula
represents the value -1 squared, and returns the value 1, a positive value.


To preserve the order of operations in a formula, you can specify that the negative symbol in a formula apply to the entire formula by inserting parentheses around the numbers that you want to be evaluated first.

For example, if the earlier fomula
is changed to
the formula returns a negative value, -4.

That has been the standard method for evaluating formulas since the first version of Microsoft Excel.

NOTE: This order of operations is different from the order of operations in Lotus 1-2-3.


For additional information about the order of evaluation of operators, please see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
25189  ( ) Excel: Order of Operations in Formulas
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Microsoft Excel 98 Macintosh Edition

For more information about operator precedence, click Contents And Index on the Help menu (or on the Balloon Help menu if you are using a version of the Macintosh operating system earlier than 8.0), click the Index button in Excel Help, type the following text
operators, formulas
and then click Show Topics. Select the "The order in which Microsoft Excel performs operations in formulas" topic, and click Go To. If you are unable to find the information you need, ask the Office Assistant.

Microsoft Excel 97

For more information about operator precedence in Microsoft Excel, click the Index tab in Microsoft Excel 97 Help, type the following text
operators, evaluation order in formulas
and then double-click the selected text to go to the "The order in which Microsoft Excel performs operations in formulas" topic.

Microsoft Excel 7.0

In Microsoft Excel Help, type the following text
operators, precedence
and then double-click the selected text to go to the "Operator Precedence" topic.

Microsoft Excel 5.0

For more information about "Mathematical Operator Evaluation in Lotus 1.2.3 and Microsoft Excel," click the Search button in Microsoft Excel Help, type the following, and then click Display:

  • Microsoft Excel 97 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Excel 95 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Excel 5.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Excel 98 for Macintosh
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This article was written about products for which Microsoft no longer offers support. Therefore, this article is offered "as is" and will no longer be updated.
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