Sometimes an application that is executed by either CreateProcess()
fails and you receive one of the following error messages:
Initialization of the dynamic library
<system>\system32\user32.dll failed. The process is terminating
Initialization of the dynamic
library <system>\system32\kernel32.dll failed. The process is terminating
The failed process returns the exit code 128 or
The executed process does not have proper security access to the
window station and desktop associated with the process.
member of the STARTUPINFO structure passed to CreateProcess()
specifies which window station and desktop is associated with the
executed process. The executed process must have proper security access to the
specified window station and desktop.
For more information about resolving security
problems with window stations and desktops, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
CreateProcessAsUser() windowstations and desktops
The system has run out of desktop heap.
object on the system has a desktop heap associated with it. The desktop object
uses the heap to store menus, hooks, strings, and windows. The system allocates
desktop heap from a system-wide 48-MB buffer. In addition to desktop heaps,
printer, and font drivers also use this buffer.
associated with window stations. A window station can contain zero or more
desktops. The size of the desktop heap allocated for a desktop associated with
a window station can be changed in the following registry value.Note
Microsoft does not recommend to use /3GB switch. The /3GB switch is specified in the boot.ini file.
The default data for this registry value will look something like
the following (all on one line):
SharedSection=1024,3072,512 Windows=On SubSystemType=Windows
The numeric values following "SharedSection=" control how desktop
heap is allocated. These SharedSection values are specified in kilobytes. There
are separate settings for desktops associated with interactive and
noninteractive window stations.Note
If the SharedSection
values in the registry are modified, the
system must be restarted before the changes take effect.Important
This section, method, or task contains steps that tell you how to modify the registry. However, serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Therefore, make sure that you follow these steps carefully. For added protection, back up the registry before you modify it. Then, you can restore the registry if a problem occurs. For more information about how to back up and restore the registry, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
How to back up and restore the registry in Windows
The first SharedSection value (1024) is the
shared heap size common to all desktops. This includes the global handle table,
which holds handles to windows, menus, icons, cursors, and so forth, and shared
system settings. It is unlikely that you would ever need to change this
The second SharedSection value (3072) is the size of the
desktop heap for each desktop that is associated with the "interactive" window
. User objects like hooks, menus, strings, and windows consume
memory in this desktop heap. It is unlikely that you would ever need to change
this second SharedSection value.
Each desktop that is created in the
interactive window station uses the default 3072-KB desktop heap. By default,
there are three desktops created in Winsta0 by the system:
- Default - The "Default" application desktop will be used by all the
processes for which "Winsta0\default" is specified in the STARTUPINFO.lpDesktop structure member. When the lpDesktop structure member is NULL, the window station and desktop is inherited from the parent
process. All services that are executed under the LocalSystem account with the Allow Service to Interact with Desktop startup option selected will use "Winsta0\Default". All these
processes will share the same desktop heap associated with the "Default"
- Screen-saver - The screen saver desktop is created in the interactive window
station (WinSta0) when a screen saver is displayed.
The third SharedSection value (512) is the size of the desktop
heap for each desktop that is associated with a "noninteractive" window
station. If this value is not present, the size of the desktop heap for
noninteractive window stations will be same as the size specified for
interactive window stations (the second SharedSection value).
two SharedSection values are present, you can add ",512" as the third value to
specify the size of the desktop heap for desktops created in noninteractive
Every service process executed under a user account
will receive a new desktop in a noninteractive window station created by the
Service Control Manager (SCM). Thus, each service executed under a user account
will consume the number of kilobytes of desktop heap specified in the third
SharedSection value. All services executed under the LocalSystem account with Allow Service to Interact with the Desktop not
selected share the desktop heap of the "Default" desktop in the
noninteractive service windows station (Service-0x0-3e7$).
desktop heap being used in the interactive and noninteractive window stations
must fit into the 48-MB system-wide buffer.
Decreasing the second or
third SharedSection values will increase the number of desktops that can be
created in the corresponding window stations. Smaller values will limit the
number of hooks, menus, strings, and windows that can be created within a
desktop. On the other hand, increasing the second or third SharedSection values
will decrease the number of desktops that can be created, but it will increase
the number of hooks, menus, strings, and windows that can be created within a
Because the SCM creates a new desktop in the noninteractive
window station for every service process that is running under a user account,
a larger desktop value for the third SharedSection value will reduce the number
of user account services that can run successfully on the system. The minimum
value that can be specified for the second or third SharedSection value is 128.
Any attempt to use a smaller value will default to 128.
is allocated by User32.dll when a process is in need of user objects. If an
application is not dependent on User32.dll, it will not consume desktop heap.
In Windows Server 2003, the specific event is logged in the system event log when one of the following conditions is true:
- If the desktop heap becomes full, the following event is logged:
Event Type: WarningIn this case, increase the desktop heap size.
Event Source: Win32k
Event Category: None
Event ID: 243
Description: A desktop heap allocation failed.
- If the total desktop heap becomes the system-wide buffer size, the following event is logged:
Event Type: WarningIn this case, decrease the desktop heap size.
Event Source: Win32k
Event Category: None
Event ID: 244
Description: Failed to create a desktop due to desktop heap exhaustion.
In Windows Server 2003, a system-wide buffer is 20 MB when one of the following conditions is true:
- You are in a Terminal Services environment.
- The /3GB switch is specified in the Boot.ini file.