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Article ID: 281998 - Last Review: June 7, 2004 - Revision: 4.3

This article was previously published under Q281998
Advanced: Requires expert coding, interoperability, and multiuser skills.

This article applies to a Microsoft Access database (.mdb) and to a Microsoft Access project (.adp).

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SUMMARY

This article describes what is required to create an updateable form that is bound to an ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) Recordset object.

MORE INFORMATION

To bind a Microsoft Access form to a recordset, you must set the Recordset property of the form to a valid Data Access Objects (DAO) or ADO Recordset object.

The Recordset property was introduced in Microsoft Access 2000, and it allows you to bind forms to either DAO or ADO Recordset objects. However, forms in Access 2000 support updateability only if the ADO connection is opened by using the MSDataShape and SQL Server OLEDB providers. For additional information about this limitation in Access 2000, click the article number below to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
227053  (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/227053/EN-US/ ) ACC2000: Forms Based on ADO Recordsets Are Read-Only
In Microsoft Access 2002 or later, you can create an updateable form that is bound to an ADO recordset that uses other OLEDB providers. A form must meet several general requirements for the form to be updateable when it is bound to an ADO recordset. These general requirements are:
  1. The underlying ADO recordset must be updateable.
  2. The recordset must contain one or more fields that are uniquely indexed, such as a table's primary key.
The other requirements for updateability vary between different providers. This article describes what the other requirements are when you use the Microsoft SQL Server, Jet, ODBC, and Oracle OLEDB providers.

Requirements for Microsoft SQL Server

There are two main requirements for supporting updateability when you bind a form to an ADO recordset that is using Microsoft SQL Server data:
  • The ADO recordset's connection must use the Microsoft Access 10.0 OLEDB provider as its service provider.
  • The ADO recordset's connection must use the Microsoft SQL Server OLEDB provider as its data provider.
NOTE: The Microsoft Access 10.0 OLEDB provider is an OLEDB service provider that was written specifically for use in Microsoft Access. It was not designed to be used in applications other than Microsoft Access, and it is not supported in other applications.

When you create ADO recordsets within Microsoft Access, you have a choice as to which ADO connection will be used by the recordset. Your ADO code can share the ADO connection that Microsoft Access is using for the SQL Server database currently open in an Access project (ADP) file; or you can programmatically create a new ADO connection to a different SQL Server database.

Sharing the ADO Connection Used by Microsoft Access

If you are using an Access project file (.adp) connected to a Microsoft SQL Server database, it is possible for your ADO code to share the ADO connection that Microsoft Access is using. This connection is exposed by the CurrentProject.AccessConnection property.

The following example demonstrates how to bind a form to an ADO recordset that is based on SQL Server data that shares an ADO connection with Microsoft Access.
  1. Open the sample project NorthwindCS.adp.
  2. Open the Customers form in Design view.
  3. Clear the RecordSource property of the form to unbind the form.
  4. Set the OnOpen property of the form to the following event procedure:
    Private Sub Form_Open(Cancel As Integer)
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Dim rs As ADODB.Recordset
             
       'Use the ADO connection that Access uses
       Set cn = CurrentProject.AccessConnection
    
       'Create an instance of the ADO Recordset class, and
       'set its properties
       Set rs = New ADODB.Recordset
       With rs
          Set .ActiveConnection = cn
          .Source = "SELECT * FROM Customers"
          .LockType = adLockOptimistic
          .CursorType = adOpenKeyset
          .Open 
       End With
       
       'Set the form's Recordset property to the ADO recordset
       Set Me.Recordset = rs
    
       Set rs = Nothing
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  5. Save and then close the form.
  6. Open the Customers form in Form view.
  7. Add, edit, or delete a record in the form.
Note that the form is bound to an updateable recordset that is based on SQL Server data.

Opening a Separate ADO Connection

At some point, you may have to open and manage your own ADO connection to SQL Server. For example, you would have to use this approach if you were writing your code in an Access database (.mdb) or an Access project file (.adp) that was connected to a different SQL Server database than your application. Note that when you use this approach, Microsoft recommends that you close the ADO connection that you opened when it is no longer needed. For example, you may want to close the ADO connection in the UnLoad event of the form.

The following example demonstrates how to open your own ADO connection to a Microsoft SQL Server database and to bind a form to it:
  1. Open the sample database Northwind.mdb.
  2. Open the Customers form in Design view.
  3. Clear the RecordSource property of the form to unbind the form.
  4. Set the OnOpen property of the form to the following event procedure:
    Private Sub Form_Open(Cancel As Integer)
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Dim rs As ADODB.Recordset
             
       'Create a new ADO Connection object
       Set cn = New ADODB.Connection
    
       'Use the Access 10 and SQL Server OLEDB providers to
       'open the Connection
       'You will need to replace MySQLServer with the name
       'of a valid SQL Server
       With cn
          .Provider = "Microsoft.Access.OLEDB.10.0"
          .Properties("Data Provider").Value = "SQLOLEDB"
          .Properties("Data Source").Value = "MySQLServer"
          .Properties("User ID").Value = "sa"
          .Properties("Password").Value = ""
          .Properties("Initial Catalog").Value = "NorthwindCS"
          .Open
       End With
    
       'Create an instance of the ADO Recordset class, and
       'set its properties
       Set rs = New ADODB.Recordset
       With rs
          Set .ActiveConnection = cn
          .Source = "SELECT * FROM Customers"
          .LockType = adLockOptimistic
          .CursorType = adOpenKeyset
          .Open 
       End With
       
       'Set the form's Recordset property to the ADO recordset
       Set Me.Recordset = rs
       Set rs = Nothing
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  5. Add the following code to the UnLoad event of the form:
    Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)
       'Close the ADO connection we opened
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Set cn = Me.Recordset.ActiveConnection
       cn.Close
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  6. Save the form, and then close it.
  7. Open the Customers form in Form view.
  8. Add, edit, or delete a record in the form.
Note that the form is bound to an updateable recordset that is based on SQL Server data.

Requirements for Microsoft Jet

Even though it is possible to bind a form to an ADO recordset that is using data from a Jet database, Microsoft recommends that you use DAO instead. DAO is highly optimized for Jet and typically performs faster than ADO when used with a Jet database.

When you bind a form to an ADO recordset using Microsoft Jet data, there are two alternatives:
  • The recordset's ActiveConnection property must use the Microsoft Access 10.0 OLEDB service provider, as well as the Microsoft Jet 4.0 OLEDB Data provider and the recordset must be a server-side cursor.

    -or-
  • The recordset's ActiveConnection property must use only Microsoft Jet 4.0 OLEDB Data provider and the recordset must be a client-side cursor.
Similar to the "Microsoft SQL Server" section earlier in this article, you have a choice as to which ADO connection will be used by the recordset when using a Jet database. Your ADO code can share the ADO connection that Microsoft Access is using for the Jet database file (.mdb) currently open, or you can programmatically create a new ADO connection to a separate Jet database file.

Sharing the ADO Connection Used by Microsoft Access

If you are writing the code in the same Microsoft Access database (.mdb) that contains the data that your recordset needs, it is possible for your ADO code to share the ADO connection that Microsoft Access is using. This connection is exposed by the CurrentProject.AccessConnection property. The following example demonstrates how to bind a form to an ADO recordset in a Jet database by sharing the ADO connection that Microsoft Access is currently using:
  1. Open the sample database Northwind.mdb.
  2. Open the Customers form in Design view.
  3. Clear the RecordSource property of the form to unbind the form.
  4. Set the OnOpen property of the form to the following event procedure:
    Private Sub Form_Open(Cancel As Integer)
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Dim rs As ADODB.Recordset
                    
       Set cn = CurrentProject.AccessConnection
    
       'Create an instance of the ADO Recordset class, and
       'set its properties
       Set rs = New ADODB.Recordset
       With rs
          Set .ActiveConnection = cn
          .Source = "SELECT * FROM Customers"
          .LockType = adLockOptimistic
          .CursorType = adOpenKeyset
          .CursorLocation = adUseServer
          .Open 
       End With
       
       'Set the form's Recordset property to the ADO recordset
       Set Me.Recordset = rs
       Set rs = Nothing
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  5. Save the form, and then close it.
  6. Open the Customers form in Form view.
  7. Add, edit, or delete a record in the form.
Note that the form is bound to an updateable recordset that is using Jet data.

Opening a Separate ADO Connection

At some point, you may have to open and manage your own ADO connection to a Jet database. For example, you would have to use this approach if you are writing your code in a database that is separate from the database that contains the data that you need to access. Note that when you use this approach, Microsoft recommends that you close the ADO connection that you opened when it is no longer needed. For example, you may want to close the ADO connection in the UnLoad event of the form.

The following example demonstrates how to open your own ADO connection to a Microsoft Jet database and to bind a form to it:
  1. Create a new blank database.
  2. Import the Customers form from the sample database Northwind.mdb.
  3. Open the Customers form in Design view.
  4. Clear the RecordSource property of the form to unbind form.
  5. Set the OnOpen property of the form to the following event procedure:
    Private Sub Form_Open(Cancel As Integer)
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Dim rs As ADODB.Recordset
             
       'Create a new ADO Connection object
       Set cn = New ADODB.Connection
    
       With cn
          .Provider = "Microsoft.Access.OLEDB.10.0"
          .Properties("Data Provider").Value = "Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0"
          .Properties("Data Source").Value = _
              "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office10" & _
              "\Samples\Northwind.mdb"
          .Open
       End With
    
       'Create an instance of the ADO Recordset class, and
       'set its properties
       Set rs = New ADODB.Recordset
       With rs
          Set .ActiveConnection = cn
          .Source = "SELECT * FROM Customers"
          .LockType = adLockOptimistic
          .CursorType = adOpenKeyset
          .Open 
       End With
       
       'Set the form's Recordset property to the ADO recordset
       Set Me.Recordset = rs
       Set rs = Nothing
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  6. Add the following code to the UnLoad event of the form:
    Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)
       'Close the ADO connection we opened
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Set cn = Me.Recordset.ActiveConnection
       cn.Close
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  7. Save the form, and then close it.
  8. Open the Customers form in Form view.
  9. Add, edit, or delete a record in the form.
Note that the form is bound to an updateable recordset that is using Jet data.

Requirements for ODBC

When you bind a form to an ADO recordset that is using data from an ODBC database, there are two main requirements:
  • The ADO connection that is used by the recordset must use the Microsoft OLEDB provider for ODBC.
  • The ADO recordset must be a client-side cursor.
The following example demonstrates how to open an ADO connection to an ODBC database and to bind a form to it.

NOTE: These steps assume that the ODBC database contains a table named CUSTOMERS that is identical in structure to the Customers table in the sample database Northwind.mdb. It also assumes you have created an ODBC DSN named MyDSN that uses the ODBC driver that you need to connect to the back-end database.
  1. Open the sample database Northwind.mdb.
  2. Open the Customers form in Design view.
  3. Clear the RecordSource property of the form to unbind form.
  4. Set the OnOpen property of the form to the following event procedure:
    Private Sub Form_Open(Cancel As Integer)
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Dim rs As ADODB.Recordset
       Dim strConnection As String
    
       strConnection = "ODBC;DSN=MyDSN;UID=sa;PWD=;DATABASE=Northwind"
       'Create a new ADO Connection object
       Set cn = New ADODB.Connection
    
       With cn
          .Provider = "MSDASQL"
          .Properties("Data Source").Value = strConnection
          .Open
       End With
    
       'Create an instance of the ADO Recordset class, and
       'set its properties
       Set rs = New ADODB.Recordset
       With rs
          Set .ActiveConnection = cn
          .Source = "SELECT * FROM Customers"
          .LockType = adLockOptimistic
          .CursorType = adOpenKeyset
          .CursorLocation = adUseClient
          .Open 
       End With
       
       'Set the form's Recordset property to the ADO recordset
       Set Me.Recordset = rs
       Set rs = Nothing
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  5. Add the following code to the UnLoad event of the form:
    Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)
       'Close the ADO connection we opened
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Set cn = Me.Recordset.ActiveConnection
       cn.Close
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  6. Save the form, and then close it.
  7. Open the Customers form in Form view.
  8. Add, edit, or delete a record in the form.
Note that the form is bound to an updateable recordset that is based on ODBC data.

Requirements for Oracle

When you bind a form to an ADO recordset that is using data from an Oracle database, there are two main requirements:
  • The ADO connection that is used by the recordset must use the Microsoft OLEDB provider for Oracle.
  • The ADO Recordset must be a client-side cursor.
The following example demonstrates how to open an ADO connection to an Oracle database and to bind a form to it.

NOTE: These steps assume that the Oracle database contains a table named CUSTOMERS that is identical in structure to the Customers table in the sample database Northwind.mdb.
  1. Open the sample database Northwind.mdb.
  2. Open the Customers form in Design view.
  3. Clear the RecordSource property of the form to unbind the form.
  4. Set the OnOpen property of the form to the following event procedure:
    Private Sub Form_Open(Cancel As Integer)
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Dim rs As ADODB.Recordset
             
       'Create a new ADO Connection object
       Set cn = New ADODB.Connection
    
       With cn
          .Provider = "MSDAORA"
          .Properties("Data Source").Value = "MyOracleServer"
          .Properties("User ID").Value = "username"
          .Properties("Password").Value = "password"          
          .Open
       End With
    
       'Create an instance of the ADO Recordset class, and
       'set its properties
       Set rs = New ADODB.Recordset
       With rs
          Set .ActiveConnection = cn
          .Source = "SELECT * FROM Customers"
          .LockType = adLockOptimistic
          .CursorType = adOpenKeyset
          .CursorLocation = adUseClient
    
          .Open 
       End With
      
       'Set the form's Recordset property to the ADO recordset
       Set Me.Recordset = rs
       Set rs = Nothing
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  5. Add the following code to the UnLoad event of the form:
    Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)
       'Close the ADO connection we opened
       Dim cn As ADODB.Connection
       Set cn = Me.Recordset.ActiveConnection
       cn.Close
       Set cn = Nothing
    End Sub
    					
  6. Save the form, and then close it.
  7. Open the Customers form in Form view.
  8. Add, edit, or delete a record in the form.
Note that the form is bound to an updateable recordset that is based on Oracle data.

REFERENCES

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
281784  (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/281784/ ) Difference Between Connection and AccessConnection Properties
The third-party products that are discussed in this article are manufactured by companies that are independent of Microsoft. Microsoft makes no warranty, implied or otherwise, regarding the performance or reliability of these products.

APPLIES TO
  • Microsoft Office Access 2003
  • Microsoft Access 2002 Standard Edition
Keywords: 
kbado kbdatabinding kbdatabase kbdesign kbprogramming kbhowto KB281998
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