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Article ID: 75634 - Last Review: May 10, 2003 - Revision: 2.0

 
This article was previously published under Q75634

SUMMARY

Using a percent sign (%) in a batch file requires that two percent signs (%%) be specified.

For example, the command to display "5%" from a batch file would be :
   ECHO 5%%
				

MORE INFORMATION

MS-DOS uses %1, %2, ... %9 as replaceable command line parameters. For example, before executing the command ECHO %1, %1 will be replaced with the first parameter passed to the batch file. %0 is replaced with the command used to execute the batch file.

A single percent sign on a line is treated as a "nul" character in a batch file. For example:
   ECHO %     is processed as ECHO
   ECHO a%b   is processed as ECHO ab
				
If a command contains two percent signs, MS-DOS will treat any characters between them as an environment variable to be expanded. For example, if the SET command shows that the current environment variables are
   COMSPEC=C:\COMMAND.COM
   PATH=C:\DOS
   PROMPT=$P$G
   B=C
				
then
   ECHO %PATH%     is processed as ECHO C:\DOS
   ECHO a%b%       is processed as ECHO aC
   ECHO a%b b%a    is processed as ECHO aa
				
If there are no characters between the two percent signs, one percent sign is stripped off and the other will remain. This is why a FOR command that echos the name of each file with a .COM extension would be
   FOR %V IN (*.COM) DO ECHO %V
				
but if the same command is placed in a batch file, the following is required:
   FOR %%V IN (*.COM) DO ECHO %%V
				
Reference(s):

"Microsoft MS-DOS Batch File Quick Reference," Microsoft Press.

APPLIES TO
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 3.1
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 3.2 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 3.21 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 3.3 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 3.3a
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 4.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 4.01 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 5.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 5.0a
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 6.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 6.2 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 6.21 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft MS-DOS 6.22 Standard Edition
Keywords: 
KB75634
Retired KB ArticleRetired KB Content Disclaimer
This article was written about products for which Microsoft no longer offers support. Therefore, this article is offered "as is" and will no longer be updated.
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